OpenPGP key verification + legal framework

Viktor ageyev at
Wed Nov 7 16:23:06 CET 2018

On 06/11/2018 20:33, Dirk Gottschalk wrote:
> In the EU the use of "qualified" signature is mandatory if it comes to
> legal issues. Between private companies it is okay to just use OpenPGP,
> but, if it comes to legal issues, one party could deny the validity of
> the signature because it is not accepted as a legal signature format,
> at least in Germany.

According to EU regulation ( 
signatures made by keys verified on Cryptonomica can be considered as 
'advanced electronic signature (AdES)' 
(, but not 
as 'qualified electronic signature' 

AdES is still legal way to sing documents and contracts. Following 
Article 25  of the eIDAS regulation an advanced electronic signature 
shall "not be denied legal effect and admissibility as evidence in legal 
proceedings solely on the grounds that it is in an electronic form or 
that it does not meet the requirements for qualified electronic signatures".

But we have an ultimate solution, that can be used regardless of local 
laws. You can put in contract an arbitration clause, like this:

"Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or relating to this 
agreement, or the breach, termination or invalidity thereof, shall be 
settled by arbitration in accordance with the Cryptonomica Arbitration 
Rules ( 
) in the version in effect at the time of the filing of the claim.
And unless the parties agree otherwise in writing:
The place of arbitration shall be: London, United Kingdom.
The language to be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be: English.
The number of arbitrators shall be: one.
The arbitral tribunal shall decide ex aequo et bono"

Where 'ex aequo et bono' means that arbitrators will dispense with 
consideration of the law but consider solely what they consider to be 
fair and equitable in the case at hand. And yes, arbitration award 
('judgment') will be recognizable and enforceable in almost any country 
according to Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign 
Arbitral Awards ( 

Best regards,
Viktor Ageyev

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