Zero width no-break space (U+FEFF) in clearsigned output message

David Shaw dshaw at
Sat Nov 26 23:05:30 CET 2005

On Sun, Nov 27, 2005 at 12:18:08AM +0300, lusfert wrote:
> David Shaw wrote on 26.11.2005, Сб 18:30:
> > On Sat, Nov 26, 2005 at 06:01:49PM +0300, lusfert wrote:
> >>
> >>When I open clearsigned 1.txt.asc I can find symbol U+FEFF (Zero width
> >>no-break space) before message, but after field "Hash:". Adding option
> >>-t does not change anything. But if source file is encoded in UTF-8
> >>without BOM, character U+FEFF doesn't appear in output clearsigned text.
> > 
> > 
> > U+FEFF is the BOM character.  It was in the original document, so it's
> > in the signed document as well.
> > 
> Then why this BOM character appears in clearsigned text if option
> --textmode (-t) is used? As I understand from its description in man
> file GnuPG threat input file as text. But BOM is a file, not text
> signature; then why U+FEFF appears in output text? Or I'm wrong?

I'm not sure what question you're asking here.  The BOM character is
in your original document.  GnuPG doesn't modify input text, so
therefore the BOM character is in the output text as well.  If you use
--textmode, GnuPG canonicalizes line endings to CRLF, but again does
not change actual text, including the BOM.

If you don't want a BOM character in your output, don't put a BOM
character in your input.

> PS
> And what about problem with verifying signatures from PGP Global
> Directory messages via GnuPG + Enigmail?
> GPG still writes:
> WARNING: signature digest conflict in message

I have yet to receive a readable copy of a mail with that problem.
Note that forwarding me the message will not tell me what I need to
know since a forwarded mail will rearrange and break the signature.  I
need the actual mail file.


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